Friday, June 23, 2017

The Lansdowne Letters: Food of the Angels

Easter Break in 1961 was a snowy one in Lansdowne House.
Even though my family was snowed in
and the Easter Bunny was delayed by the heavy snowfall,
we were having fun playing games, reading, and celebrating my father's birthday.
I remember that time as one of the happiest in my childhood.

Birthdays were always significant in our family,
and March was the month for birthdays, 
with four of us turning older within two weeks:
me (18th), Barbie (19th), Bertie (27th), and Dad (30th).

As a family we didn't have a lot of money for presents,
but each of us always had our favorite cake
and were excused from chores on our special day.

Back When We Wanted to Do Dishes!
Donnie dries dishes for the first time, while Roy stands by ready to advise.
Candid shots meant a startling flash.
Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada, Circa 1956
© M. Louise (MacBeath) Barbour/Fundy Blue
All Rights Reserved

My mother wrote letters as well as my father,
but many of hers have not survived.
We used to joke about Mom's letters when we were older,
because she usually mentioned what she was cooking.
This one was typical.

On Friday, March 31, 1961
My mother wrote to her mother-in-law
Myrtle MacBeath:

Dear Mother:
We are all fine.
I imagine it is beginning to feel
like spring on the Island.
The weather here has been lovely.

However one evening this last week
was very wintery
with lots of snow and a strong wind.
The drifts were over our waists.

Sara Margaret (MacDonald) MacBeath
Acadia University, Wolfville, Circa 1950
© M. Louise (MacBeath) Barbour/Fundy Blue
All Rights Reserved

Yesterday was Don’s birthday.
He loves the shirt you sent him,
and it looks very good with his bluish grey suit.

I made an angel food cake for him with your boiled icing.
It turns out well for me now since I have a candy thermometer.
However I think I should beat it after I take it off the hot water.
Do you?

We didn’t do much this week.
Uno was over for dinner on Sunday.
We had chicken and Boston cream pie.

We played bridge with the Mitchells on Tuesday night.
Mr. Mitchell and I won.

Last evening we played bridge with Duncan and Maureen.
Dunc and Don really put a licking on us.
The Mitchells are coming over to play bridge tomorrow night.

Don has started painting again.
He painted a very nice picture of the log church next door.
I like it very much, and it will make an interesting souvenir.

The Anglican Log Church
The corner of our home is in the middle left of the painting.
Lansdowne House, Northern Ontario, Canada
Painting by Don MacBeath, March 1961
© M. Louise (MacBeath) Barbour/Fundy Blue
All Rights Reserved

The children are all fine.  They like having Don as their teacher.
Louise says he is the most interesting teacher she has ever had.


We have been doing a lot of reading lately.
Right now I’m engrossed in a huge book entitled
“The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich,” by William Shirer.
I was telling Don it is giving me nightmares.

I hope that you had a pleasant Easter.
Don had forgotten all about it,
so we had to radio out for Easter eggs.

I must close now and get dinner going.
It doesn’t look as if the plane will be in today.
The visibility is practically nil.
And it’s snowing heavily outside.

With love,

Flickr ~ mdornseif   License

Hands down, my father's favorite cake was angel food cake with boiled icing.
It was a rare treat in our house because it was tricky to make,
especially in the North with no electricity.

The task involved a lot of beating
with an old-fashioned, hand-held egg beater.
Man, I hated hand-cranking that beater,
and if I did it a long time,
both hands would get sweaty, even blistered.
Beating it fast was an aerobic activity. 

Flickr:  Bre Pettis ~ Adapted   License

Angel cake, dubbed "food of the angels," is white and airy
because it contains no butter or egg yokes
and requires cake flour milled from a soft wheat.
It is baked in a tube pan because it rises five or six inches high.

       Angel Food Cake
          a.  in a tube pan               b.  on a plate
          Flickr ~ Bev Currie          Flickr ~ Bev Currie
           License for Both 

Because of the cake's delicate nature,
we had to tiptoe around the kitchen
so the cake wouldn't fall while it was baking,
and no one dared open the oven door
for fear of shocking the cake into collapsing.

My mother had to gently cut it with back-to-back forks
so the cake wouldn't compress into a spongy mess.

Regular icing wouldn't do, because it was too heavy,
so my mother always made Nana's fluffy white boiled icing.
Personally I thought the sweet, sticky icing
was the best part of the cake.
The actual "food of the angels"
tasted bland and felt too spongy in my mouth.

I wasn't alone in my love of Nana's fluffy white boiled icing.
We kids all battled over licking the whisk and the spatula and the pot.
The icing made perfect mustaches!
We loved to paint our upper lips, let the icing set, and lick it off!

My mother was a great cook and baker.
She never learned either skill because her mother
didn't want Mom underfoot when she was working in the kitchen;
so my mother learned to cook and bake after she was married.

She made sure that we all learned the basics
which for me included baking bread, making jam and pickles,
and turning out my father's favorite angel food cake with fluffy white icing.

Till next time ~
Fundy Blue

Bay of Fundy out of Westport, Brier Island
© M. Louise (MacBeath) Barbour/Fundy Blue
All Rights Reserved

1.  The Island:
     We always referred to Prince Edward Island where my Grandmother MacBeath lived as "The Island."

2.  Uno Manilla:
     Uno taught at the Roman Catholic School on the Father's Island.  My father roomed with Uno before he was able
     to rent the forestry house and move us north.  

3.  The Mitchells:
     Bill Managed the Hudson's Bay post, and Rhea was his wife.

4.  Duncan and Maureen McRae:
     Duncan worked for the Department of Transport, and one of his duties was running the weather
     station in Lansdowne House.  He and his wife Maureen were good friends with my parents.
5.  Painting:
     Both of my parents were painters.  My father preferred oils and my mother watercolors.  Unfortunately 
     the responsibilities of working and raising and educating five children made it difficult for my parents to 
     pursue their passions.  I am humbled by the sacrifices they made for my brother, sisters, and me.  

6.  The Rise and Fall of the Third Reicht:  A History of Nazi Germany:
     My mother was a secretary in the Royal Canadian Air Force toward the end of WW II.  Part of her job was
     to type letters informing families about loved ones who had been injured or killed.  She actually had to type
     letters to people she knew in her village of Smith's Cove, Nova Scotia.  Understandably, reading Shirer's account
     of the rise and fall of Nazi Germany was distressing for my mother.

     William Shirer, a journalist who reported on Nazi Germany for six years, based his book on captured Nazi
     documents, the diaries of Joseph Goebbels, Franz Halder, and Galeazzo Ciano, evidence and testimony from
     the Nuremberg trials, and a variety of media sources.  Published in 1960, the book was an award-winning
     bestseller, acclaimed by journalists but less so by academic historians, perhaps because of its journalistic rather
     than academic style.  Wikipedia  
     I tried to read it after Mom finished it, but I found it too dry as an eleven-year-old and quit reading it.

For Map Lovers Like Me:
Route Map for Austin Airways, 1985
with Lansdowne House West of James Bay
Nakina is near Geraldton.

Location of Nakina

Location of Smith's Cove, Nova Scotia

Canada   Wikimedia

For Bakers Like Me:
(Actually I haven't had the guts to bake these for decades!)

Mom’s Angel Food Cake
1¼ - 1½ cups sugar
1 cup cake flour
½ teaspoon salt
1¼ cups egg whites (10-12 egg whites)
1 tablespoon water
1 tablespoon lemon juice
1 teaspoon cream of tartar
½ teaspoon vanilla extract
½ teaspoon almond extract

Use a 9-inch tube pan, with removable rim.  Do not grease.
Preheat oven to 325º F.

Sift twice 1¼ - 1½ cups of sugar.
Sift separately before measuring 1 cup of cake flour.
Resift the flour three times
with ½ cup of the sifted sugar and ½ teaspoon salt.

Whip until foamy the 1¼ cups of egg whites
(10-12 egg whites, 60 - 70º F, separated just before use)
with 1 tablespoon water and 1 tablespoon lemon juice.
Add 1 teaspoon cream of tartar
and whip the egg white mixture until stiff, but not dry.

Gradually whip in, about 1 tablespoon at a time,
the remaining ¾ to 1 cup of sifted sugar.

Fold in (by hand, gentle and firm, avoid breaking down
the cellular structure of the egg whites which have trapped air)
½ teaspoon of vanilla extract and ½ teaspoon of almond extract.

Sift about ¼ cup of the sugar and flour mixture over the batter.
Fold it in gently and briefly with a rubber scraper.
Continue until all the sugar and flour mixture is added.

Pour the batter into an ungreased tube pan.
Then draw a thin spatula gently through the batter
to destroy any large air pockets.

Bake about 45 minutes.
Remove when a toothpick
inserted in the cake comes out clean.

To cool, turn the tube pan upside down on an inverted funnel,
if the tube is not high enough to keep the cake
above the surface of the table.
Let the cake hang about 1½ hours until it is thoroughly set.
Remove it from the pan before storing.

Do not cut with a knife,
but use two forks back-to-back to pry cake gently apart.

Nana’s (Mom’s) Fluffy White Boiled White Icing:
Makes two cups

2 cups sugar
1 cup water
2 egg whites    
1/8 teaspoon salt
1/8 teaspoon cream of tartar 
OR a few drops of lemon juice and 1 teaspoon vanilla extract.

Stir until the sugar is dissolved and bring to a boil
2 cups of sugar and 1 cup of water.

Cover and cook for about 3 minutes,
until the steam has washed down any crystals,
which may have formed on the sides of the pan.

Uncover and cook 238º F or 240º F
(as measured by a candy thermometer).
At that temperature the syrup will spin a very thin thread
on the end of a coarser thread
(when suspended from a spoon or spatula).
This final thread will almost disappear.

Whip until frothy 2 egg whites and 1/8 teaspoon salt.

Add the syrup in a thin stream, whipping eggs constantly.

When these ingredients are combined,
add 1/8 teaspoon of cream of tartar
OR a few drops of lemon juice
and 1 teaspoon of vanilla extract.
Continue whipping.

When the icing begins to harden at the edges of the bowl,
it should be ready to put on the cake.
Do not scrape the bowl. 

If the syrup has not been boiled long enough
and the icing won’t harden, beat it in strong sunlight.

If this doesn’t do the trick,
place the icing in the top of a double boiler
over hot water (not in),
until it reaches the right consistency for spreading.

If the syrup has been overcooked
and the icing tends to harden too soon,
adding a teaspoon or two of boiling water
or a few drops of lemon juice will restore it.

If raisins, nutmeats, zest, or other ingredients are to be added to the icing,
wait until the last moment to incorporate them.
They contain oil or acid, which will thin the icing.

Friday, June 16, 2017

The Lansdowne Letters: Another Crisis in the MacBeath Home

Another crisis hit my parents in the spring of 1961,
but at least this one could be contained and resolved.

Snowy Day in Lansdowne House
Out Our Front Window, Forestry Department 
Northern Ontario, 1961
Painting by Don MacBeath 
© M. Louise (MacBeath) Barbour/Fundy Blue
All Rights Reserved

Friday, March 31, 1961
My father wrote:

Hello Everybody:
Thanks goodness that we were snowed in today,
or I would never have gotten this off this week.
Last night (mail night) was my birthday,
and Duncan and Maureen came over to help me to celebrate the occasion.

Duncan and I gave the distaff sides of the two partnerships
a terrible trimming at bridge.  We beat them by about 2200 points.

Best Buds
Dad (left)  Duncan (right)
Lansdowne House, Northern Ontario, 1960
© M. Louise (MacBeath) Barbour/Fundy Blue
All Rights Reserved

I have been sitting on pins and needles waiting to hear
from Ottawa regarding that position in Sioux Lookout.
I don’t imagine I have a hope in Hades of getting it,
but a fellow can hope.

Actually, in spite of my pessimistic pronouncements
on the subject, I am quite hopeful.
I can’t imagine they would have written to me regarding it,
if they hadn’t been giving me, or my name, some consideration.
It would sure be wonderful I did get it.

Sara has gained another five pounds and has now reached 110 pounds
for a total gain of 15 pounds since she came north.
She is looking better every day, although the faint possibility,
which I thought was so preposterous when she first arrived,
that of having to get her a girdle,
doesn’t seem nearly so preposterous now.

She is threatening to go on a diet now.  The very idea!!!!!
She hasn’t looked so good or so healthy in a long time.
I have hopes of getting her up to at least 120 pounds by spring.

My Mother, Sara MacBeath
Location Unknown, Circa 1950
© M. Louise (MacBeath) Barbour/Fundy Blue
All Rights Reserved

In the previous paragraph I used the phrase
“before spring,” because it is still very much winter up here.
In the last ten days or so we have had a couple of bad blizzards
and a real bad ice and sleet storm.

Also, the night before last, Lansdowne House received some fleeting notoriety.
We had the dubious honour of being the coldest place in Canada--17 below.

Right now Sara is making like a chartered accountant
and is trying to get her account books in order.
I can’t help her, for I am afraid that her mathematics
are too devious for a mere man like me to follow.

I must give her credit though, for after a series
of darns, gosh darns, and oh damns,
she always manages to get everything to balance.

We are facing a crisis right now, that of an Easter Eggless Easter,
but I imagine we will weather it by substituting chocolate bars and other forms of candy.
We still have not become completely accustomed to the northern method
of ordering everything like this months in advance.

Chick with Eggs

Tomorrow night the Mitchells are coming over for bridge.
I am looking forward to a beating then, for Sara and Bill always play Rhea and me,
and while they seem to click like they had been playing together for twenty years,
Rhea and I have yet to reconcile our different systems of playing and bidding.
If it is possible at all for us to misconstrue each other’s bids, we do it.

I was just thinking how amazing it is that two people can view
the same situation and experience such different emotional reactions.
For example the Easter holidays have started, and while I am positively delighted
that I am able to stay home from school for the next ten days,
Sara is utterly appalled at the prospects of having
the four children home for the next ten days.

The Father and the Brother are also coming over soon for bridge
-- next Tuesday to be precise.
However since I always play with the Father and Sara plays with the Brother,
and because I enjoy the same success with the Father that Sara enjoys with Bill Mitchell,
and also because Sara and the Brother are bothered like Rhea and me,
I am looking forward to a successful evening.
That last sentence was a whopper, wasn’t it?

Father Ouimet, Don MacBeath, and Brother Bernier
Kitchen in Roman Catholic Mission 
Lansdowne House, Northern Ontario, 1961
© M. Louise (MacBeath) Barbour/Fundy Blue
All Rights Reserved

Sara is now reading back issues of The Guardian.
I just heard her exclaim with surprise that Liz Taylor was sick.
She just asked me if Liz had died.

Now she has just discovered that George Formby had died.
Nothing like being up to date on the news, eh.

The aerial for our radio just arrived,
and Duncan is coming over to help me put it up the first fine day.
Then Sara ought to be able to keep up with the news with more success.

Well, I have just about dried up as a source of news for this week,
so I’ll let Sara get in a few licks and close out this week’s letter for me.

Bye now,
Love, Don.

Sara and Don MacBeath
Wolfville, Nova Scotia, Canada, circa 1960
© M. Louise (MacBeath) Barbour/Fundy Blue
All Rights Reserved

My mother added to my father's letter:

Hello Everybody:
I am also reading the Contract Bridge Section in the papers,
so I can disappoint Don when we play with the Father and Brother.

There isn’t much more that I can think to say
except that I hope you are all well
and that the Easter Bunny is good to each and every one of you.

Love, Sara.

Contract Bridge
© M. Louise (MacBeath) Barbour/Fundy Blue
All Rights Reserved

My father had a childish delight in Easter.
I'd like to say it was all about the Christian celebration of Easter,
but it wasn't.  It was all about him hiding eggs as the Easter Bunny.

There were always treats that were almost impossible to find.
He divided whatever house we were living in into sections for each of us to search,
and he adjusted the difficulty of the hiding places according to our abilities.

We didn't have Easter baskets filled with goodies like our American cousins did.
We had to hunt down every egg and other items, one by one.

We earned our booty,
especially as our father had a streak of devilment in him that surfaced every Easter.


I can still hear my father going from area to area
and helping his perplexed kids with an encouraging,
"You're getting hotter, hotter."
Or "colder, colder."

Like I was going to find the egg
replacing a battery in his electric razor
or the egg hidden in hollowed out slices
in the middle of a loaf of bread
without his, "You're hot!  You're burning hot!"

Meanwhile our mother was also helping us, going from area to area.
She had assisted my father hiding the Easter eggs the night before.
He had spent hours at it, laughing with delight as he went about his bunny duties,
especially whenever he found a really original hiding place.

Dad was driven by the theory that since we kids had waited so long with such excitement
that he should make the fun last as long as possible.

Mom, taking pity on us, would nod toward a hiding place
with a slight tilt of her head or a subtle point with a finger.   

I can still remember, as second grader,
searching our living room in Alymer, Ontario.
The very first things I found were two fluffy chicks
and a marshmallow egg underneath the edge of the chesterfield.
The thrill of spotting those yellow chicks
shot down through my body right to my toes:
The Easter Bunny had really come!

As much as hunting down those eggs frustrated me at times,
I'd dearly love to have Dad hide a few for me next Easter.
How we all loved those Easters!

Till next time ~
Fundy Blue

On the Shore of the Annapolis Basin
Smith's Cove, Nova Scotia, Canada
July 24, 2016
© M. Louise (MacBeath) Barbour/Fundy Blue
All Rights Reserved

1.  Mail Night:  Typically the once-weekly mail plane flew into Lansdowne House on Fridays to drop off and pick
     up mail.  That meant many people spent Thursday night, or "Mail Night" writing personal and business letters to
     make Friday's mail run.

2.  Duncan and Maureen McRae:
     Duncan worked for the Department of Transport, and one of his duties was running the weather
     station in Lansdowne House.  He and his wife Maureen were good friends with my parents.
3.  My Mother's Health:
     My mother had Grave's Disease, an autoimmune disorder that causes hyperthyroidism or overproduction of
     thyroid hormones.  Four years previously my mother had had an operation to remove her thyroid.  Unfortunately
     her parathyroid glands were accidentally removed also.  She struggled throughout her life to keep weight on.
     Grave's Disease also impacted my mother's vision.

4.  Weight Conversions:  
        5  pounds  =     2.3 kilograms
      15  pounds  =     6.8 kilograms
    110  pounds  =    49.9 kilograms
    120  pounds  =  108.4 kilograms
5.   Exclamation Marks:
      It was fun to discover, when I was working with my father's letters, that he used exclamation marks liberally too.

6.  Temperature Conversion:  
       -17º Fahrenheit  =  -27º Celsius

7.  Bill and Rhea Mitchell:
     Bill was the manager of the Hudson's Bay Post in Lansdowne House and married to Rhea.

8.  Father Ouimet and Brother Bernier:  
     They were members of the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate,
     a missionary religious congregation in the Roman Catholic Church. 

9.  The Guardian:  Newspaper published in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island since the 1870s.  Wikipedia

    10.  Liz Taylor: 
    Quoted from Wikipedia:
    "Dame Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor, DBE (February 27, 1932 – March
     23, 2011) was a British American actress, businesswoman, and
     humanitarian. She began as a child actress in the early 1940s, and was
     one of the most popular stars of classical Hollywood cinema in the

     Photo:  Wikimedia

11.  George Formby:
     Quoted from Wikipedia  
     "George Formby, OBE (born George Hoy Booth; 26 May
     1904 – 6 March 1961), was an English actor, 
     singer-songwriter and comedian who became known to a
     worldwide audience through his films of the 1930s and

     Photo:  Wikimedia

For Map Lovers Like Me:
Location of Lansdowne House
Known Today as Neskantaga

Friday, June 9, 2017

The Lansdowne Letters: Empty Skies

When I heard on the radio that the Air Force was parachuting
food supplies into northern Ontario for the starving Indians,
I ran to the McRaes' kitchen window and searched the bright blue sky.

I was excited to think that my Red Cross Project
had moved the government to help
my Ojibway friends and neighbors.

I hoped that the Air force would
parachute my clothing cartons
into Lansdowne House
along with the emergency food.

A Young Idealist
© M. Louise (MacBeath) Barbour/Fundy Blue
All Rights Reserved

I could see those cartons hanging from canopies
and drifting lazily down to land on the ice
between the Father's Island and the mainland.

I could see people dashing to the ice, opening the cartons, and passing around
the winter clothing that the people of Smith's Cove had generously donated
to the Red Cross clothing drive at school.

I could see them wrapping coats around themselves 
and pulling on mittens and scarves, 
some knitted by my grandmother's friends in Smith's Cove.
I could hear their excited chatter and laughter. 

Between the Father's Island and the Mainland
At this time my father lived in the brown shack
between the church and the white rectory on the island.  
Photograph by Father Maurice Ouimet, Fall 1960
© M. Louise (MacBeath) Barbour/Fundy Blue
All Rights Reserved

That bright blue sky remained empty in all directions.
I searched it for several days, but nothing blossomed to mar that crystalline blue.
I came to the shocking conclusion that some news reports might not be accurate.

Empty Skies Above Northern Ontario
"Neighboring" Webequie
Northern Ontario, Canada, December 1960
Photograph by Donald MacBeath
© M. Louise (MacBeath) Barbour/Fundy Blue
All Rights Reserved

Oh, I was aware that the world could be unfair, unjust, and cruel
and that lies, deceit, and evil existed.  But that was Elsewhere. 

Canada's Flag 1957-1965

This was Canada:  
The True North Strong and Free.

As I grappled with a growing sense of disappointment,
my father's worries began to ease. 
Unexpectedly new hope appeared on his horizon.

On Thursday, March 23, 1961
my father wrote to the extended family:

My Father, Donald MacBeath
Fall 1960
© M. Louise (MacBeath) Barbour/Fundy Blue
All Rights Reserved

How's everyone today?
I haven't had too much time for private writing this week,
so this will be a short one.

Well, so far I haven't received any of the expected blasts about press the releases.
In fact, the only official letter that I received last week
was one telling me that my name was being considered for a nice promotion.

I received word from R. F. Davey, Chief of the Education Branch,
that my name was being considered for appointment
as supervising principal for the Sioux Lookout Indian Agency.

In this position I would be responsible for the administration
and supervision of about fifteen schools, most of them accessible only by air.
My immediate superior would be the district supervisor at North Bay.
My headquarters would be in Sioux Lookout.

I would get a good increase in salary, but I would loose my isolation allowance,
so my actual increase would be about $500.00 a year.

I would also be responsible for a crash building program
that the department is undertaking for the next five years.
They plan to replace nearly all the schools with new ones.

It would be just wonderful if I got this job,
because it would mean that I would be in the north
or near enough to indulge in my love for the north;
and at the same time my family would be able to indulge in their love
for the pleasures and advantages of civilization.

Sioux Lookout is a town about the size of Wolfville, N.S., 
and is on the northern CNR trans-continental line about 250 miles west of Nakina.
The town has excellent educational, residential, and medical facilities.

Train Station
Sioux Lookout, Ontario, Canada
Flickr:  Seán Ó Domhnaill   License

I was very favorably impressed with the town the only time I was there,
which was just about Christmas, when I went out as an escort for that sick Indian woman.

Well, I guess you've had it for this week.
It is quite late, and I still have to teach at Lansdowne House tomorrow.
I will try to write a longer letter next week.

The reason I am so pressed for time this week
was that I spent this week making up the annual requisitions.
I only received the forms last week,
and they had to be in by this week's mail.
Since my name is being considered for a promotion,
I couldn't afford to be late submitting them.

Well, bye for now,
Love, Don.

My Parents in More Carefree Days
Dating at Acadia University
Wolfville, Nova Scotia, Canada
© M. Louise (MacBeath) Barbour/Fundy Blue
All Rights Reserved

It's true.  It never rains but it pours.  
Although my parents kept it carefully hidden from me and my siblings,
they must have been under great stress.

In the middle of the scandal over the press releases,
the hurried trips in and out of Lansdowne House by the Indian agent and my father,
and dealing with the real fear of my father loosing the job they desperately depended upon,
Dad gets a letter about a potential promotion
and has to scramble to get together requisitions for the next school year,
plus pump fuel and carry water.

My parents must have been agonizing over
whether my father would get a promotion or be drummed out
of the Education Division of the Indian Affairs Branch in disgrace.

Meanwhile I was still searching the skies with lessening hope,
and learning the bitter taste of disillusionment.

Till next time ~
Fundy Blue

Bay of Fundy out of Westport, Brier Island
© M. Louise (MacBeath) Barbour/Fundy Blue
All Rights Reserved

1.  R. F. Davey, Chief of the Education Division:
     The Education Division was part of the Indian Affairs Branch which in turn was part of the Department 
     of Citizenship and Immigration.  Mr. Davey, the Chief, worked in Ottawa. 

2.  Miles to Kilometers:
     250 miles = 402 kilometers

For Map Lovers Like Me:
with the Provinces of Ontario and Nova Scotia 

Location of Smith's Cove and Wolfville

Communities in Ontario
Wikimedia  edited